- Adolescent Learner’s
The term “Adolescence” comes from the Latin word ‘adolescence’ that means “to grow” or “to grow to maturity”. Maturing involves not only physical but also mental growth. Adolescence is the stage between childhood and adulthood. WHO defines adolescence both in terms of age spanning the ages between 10 and 19 Years?
In India Adolescence is a phase that is more difficult to define, particularly in terms of age. The classic age-wise grouping for Adolescence is between 11 to 18 years for girls and between 12 to 18 years for boys.
“Piaget has defined adolescence from a psychological viewpoint. According to him “psychologically, Adolescence is the age when the individual becomes integrated into the society of adults, the age when the child no longer feels that he is below the level of his elders but equal at least in right”
Adolescent chronology can be attributed to a number of factors, including the appreciated continuity of human development a recognition of individual, cultural, gender etc. Generally, this stage is considered from 12- 18. Some differences are found among the different countries in the period of the development of adolescence due to personality differences, culture and climate.
Some Psychologists have divided it between two groups:
- Early adolescence from 12-16 Years.
- Late adolescence from 17-19 Years.
Educational Psychology studies the human behaviour in the educational situation and its objective is to bring about the desired changes in the behaviour of the child. Hence it is important for the teacher to know the changes that take place in a child as a result of growth and development.
Early adolescence is a characteristic developmental stage of life.
- These are the years during which each individual forms his/her adult personality, basic values, and attitude.
- They seek autonomy and independence.
- They are by nature explorers, curious and adventuresome.
- They have intellectual capacities occasionally selected by traditional schooling.
- They learn best through interaction and activity rather than by listening.
- Their physical and social development becomes priorities.
- They are sensitive, vulnerable, and emotional.
- They are open to influence by the significant others in their lives.
- A significant portion of today’s teenage population is alienated from society.
Classic Theoretical Perspectives of Adolescent Development
Biosocial Perspective — Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Phylogenetic evolution
Stanley Hall (1844-1924) Recapitulation
Organismic Perspective— Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Phylogenetic/Psychosexual emphasis
Anna Freud (1895-1982) Peter Blos (1904-1997) NeoFreudians
Psychosexual emphasis —- Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Psychosocial emphasis
Phylogenetic — Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive emphasis
Lawrence Kohlberg -(1927-1987) Moral Developnient
Carol Gilligan(1936-) Moral Development Feminist Perspective
Lawrence Kohlberg -(1927-1987) Moral Developnient– James Fowler (1940-) Faith Development
Robert Sleman (1942-) Social Cognition
Contextual Perspective— Margaret Mead (1901-1978) Anthropological frame
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Social Constructionism
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) Behavioral science/Field Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) Ecological orientation
Richard Lerner (1946-) Developmental Contextualism