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In Education, Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge and experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more generally the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual growth of a person by another person.
It is an instruction or delivering a skill or subject which is pre-planned behavior’s informed by learning principles and child development theory which directs and guides instruction to ensure desired student’s outcomes. It is a complex, multifaceted activity, often asking us as instructors’ multiple tasks and goals simultaneously and flexibly.
Teaching is an activity aimed at bringing about meaningful learning through a method that is morally and pedagogically (educationally) acceptable.
“Teaching involves a teacher, a learner, content in the form of knowledge, facts, information and skill to be communicated a thoughtful purpose on the part of the learners to learn and finally a method that respects the learners’ cognitive integrity and freedom of choice.”
Having a consistent value of teaching is always important for a good education system. Therefore, the curriculum can always be found in both eastern and western education system. However, with different interpretations towards the term “curriculum”, attitudes and values towards a pedagogical approach may vary, which in turn affects how students learn in schools.
There are two fundamentally different ways of understanding teaching:
- Teaching as an instructor-centered activity in which knowledge is transmitted from someone who has acquired that knowledge to learners: teaching as knowledge transmission.
- Teaching as a learner-centered activity in which the instructor ensures that learning is made possible for learners and supports, guides, and encourages them in their active and independent creation of new knowledge: teaching as assisted knowledge creation.
- According Oxford dictionary Teaching’ means “impart knowledge or skill, give instruction or lessons, instil and inspire with.”
- According Hung like Epsiten (1981) “What all the great teachers appear to have in common is a love of their subject, an objective satisfaction in arousing this love in their students and an ability to convince them that what they are being taught is deadly serious.”
- Gage defined “Teaching as a process of relationship which should be dealt with cooperation.”
- According to “Brubacher” “In teaching children plays the central role and the teacher optimal.”
- According to Smith (1947) “Considered teaching as a tripolar process involving (i) agent or sources of producing learning which may be human or material (ii) a goal or target to be achieved (iii) the intervening variables consisting of learning or teaching situation, involving human or physical conditions and instructional methods.”
- According to Amidon (1967) “Considered teaching as a process of interaction between teacher and the taught as a cooperative enterprise as a two-way traffic.”
- According to above definitions, “Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things”.
- Interventions commonly take the form of questioning, listening, giving information, explaining some phenomenon, demonstrating a skill or process, testing understanding and capacity, and facilitating learning activities (such as note taking, discussion, assignment writing, simulations and practice).
1.2 Nature and Characteristics of Teaching
- Provide Guidance and training
- Interaction between teacher and students
- Teaching is an art to give knowledge to student in effective way.
- Teaching is a science to educate fact and causes of different topic of different subjects.
- Encourage students to learn more and more Provide formal as well as informal education.
- Communication of information and knowledge to students in teaching, teacher imparts information in interesting way so that can easily understand the information.
- Teaching is a tool to help students to adjust him in society and the environment.
1.3 Objectives of Teaching
Before Deciding Teaching Objective Institutional Have Aims and Mission
- Institutional (Mission and Aim)
- Degree Program (Aims and Objectives)
- Departmental (Mission and Aim)
- Course (Aims and Objectives)
- Teaching Session (Aims and Objectives)
The Teacher has following objectives in Teaching Session:
(i). Development ability of Critical and Logical Thinking: Develop the ability of critical and logical thinking to process:
- Identify the problems;
- Analyze the problems;
- Select relevant facts, principles etc.
- Establish relationships;
- Advance arguments in support of or against an issue;
- Draw inferences and conclusions;
- Verify the inferences
(ii). Development of Knowledge: The student acquires knowledge of various terms, concepts, events, ideas, problem personalities and principles related to the study.
- Recollection facts, events, years and terms etc.
- Recognize facts, events, concepts, years etc.
- Read information presented in different forms.
- Show information on maps, charts, diagrams etc.
(iii) Development of Understanding: Develop an understanding of terms, facts, events, years, principles etc. related to the study.
- Classify facts, events, terms, concepts etc.
- Compare and contrast the events, trends, concepts etc.
- Discriminate between the significant and the silly matters
- Identify relationship between causes and effects etc.
- Detect errors in the statement and rectify
- Arrange facts, etc. in a particular known order
- Interpret the maps, charts, etc. from the source of history
(iv) Development of Attitudes: Students develop favorable attitudes as:
- Show respect towards other peoples, ways of life, ideas etc.
- Know about other religions and faiths
- Establish friendship with other peoples
- Practice the noble religions and their principles
- Cooperate with others in social and historical activities
- Appreciate cultural differences
- Believe in equality of man irrespective of caste, class, creed, color and religion
(v) Create Interests in the Study: Developed interests in the study of students with activities relating to:
- Participate in historical drama and historical occasions
- Visit places of historical interests, archaeological sites, museums and archives
- Read historical documents, maps, charts etc.
- Play active roles in the activities of the historical organizations and associations
- Write articles on related topics
- Teach Case Study and Presentation of related topic
(vi) Develop Practical Skill: Students develop practical skills by drawing historical maps, charts, diagrams, prepare models, tools, etc. which helpful in the study and understanding of historical events.
(vii) Development of Adjustment: The manner of teaching should be such that it makes the Students feel at home in his classroom. The teacher must ensure that the learner is well adjusted to the environment which includes his classmates, school mates and other members of his society at large.
(viii) Achievement of Values: Moral, Cultural and Spiritual value of students are developed by best teaching methodology which express emphatically point out that, “certain basic values as respect for others, responsibility, solidarity, creativity and integrity must be fostered in students”.
Emphasis should be given in educating good qualities like cooperation, good will, forgiveness, tolerance, honesty, patience, etc. in order to encourage universal brother-hood and to prepare students worthy citizens of the country.
(ix) Make Friendly Environment: One of the primary objectives of teaching is to make the Friendly environment of the place of teaching which is helpful to remain focused on the teaching.
1.4 Phases of Teaching aptitude
Based on the procedure mentioned above, we can divide teaching into three sequential steps. These phases of teaching are namely
- Pre active phase of teaching (Planning Stage)
- Interactive phase of teaching (Implementation Stage)
- The post-active phase of teaching (Evaluation Stage)
- Pre-Active Phase
Teaching must be done only after a careful planning to perform the task smoothly and successfully. This stage involves two major steps, namely:
- Establishment of Objectives or Goals: In planning a chapter or unit, the very first step should be framing of objectives related to the topic that has to be taught. With reference to a period of instruction, the specific instructional objectives are to be written in behavioral terms.
- Deciding Ways to Achieve These Objectives: As the teacher has already identified the specific objectives to be achieved with reference to decide how these specific objectives are to be achieved. This should be done keeping in mind the topic or content to be taught, as this is content specific. All topics cannot be allocated within a uniform manner. Planning is done for deciding the following aspects
(i) Learning experiences to be given
(ii) Teaching approach to be followed
(iii) What maxims/principles can be followed?
(iv) Teaching aids to be used
(v) Time taken to teach the topic
(vi) Management of the classroom
(vii) Tools to be used for evaluation
- Interactive Phase
Having planned the teaching in the first phase, in this second phase, the teacher executes the plan. This is nothing but the actual teaching. For the successful implementation and achievement of the objectives framed in the first phase, the teaching should proceed in an interactive manner. Both students and teachers are involved in this process. This improves the quality of teaching. The activities that take place in this phase can be listed as follows:
- Reaction process
Let us now see what these exactly mean.
(i) Perception: The aspect of perception relates both to the teacher as well as the students. As for the teacher, he/she must perceive the classroom atmosphere, preplanning, abilities in interacting with the group. The students on their part have to perceive these aspects of the ability of the teacher, personality characteristics and behaviour of the teacher from the point of view of a desirable interaction between students and the teacher.
(ii) Diagnosis: It is the teacher’s concern to diagnose the abilities of the students, their academic background, their intelligence, their interests and aptitude. This can be done by questioning or by assessing their performance by providing opportunities to do so. The students access their own abilities, interests, aptitude and behavior performance of their responses through verbal or non-verbal interaction.
(iii) Reaction Process: Classroom teaching involves continuous action-reaction between teacher and Students. The action of the teacher decides the reaction of the Students. For this to be performed successfully to result in reach of the specific objectives, the teacher must give the proper stimuli, reinforcement and feedback. The teacher should also adopt strategies to suit the needs of the student and the specific objectives to be realized.
(C) Post-Active Phase
This phase deals with the evaluation activities. First and foremost, it attempts to measure the desirable change in behavior in the students, resulting in achieving of the specific instructional objectives. Some of the general devices adopted for testing this achievement such as tests, quiz, oral questions, structured or unstructured situations and behavioral situation. The devices are to be selected appropriately so that they project the extent to improve.
1.5 Levels of Teaching aptitude
Teaching and learning are inter-related, inter-linked and interdependent. Teaching affects learning directly and indirectly both. During teaching an interaction takes place between an experienced person (teacher) and an inexperienced person (student). Here the main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student. The teaching learning process in the formal, non-formal and informal situations may be probed with a view to specially ascertain the various levels of teaching and learning.
(a) Autonomous Development level (Naturally)
(b) Memory (Thoughtless teaching)
(c) Understanding (Thoughtful teaching)
(d) Reflective (Upper thoughtful level)
Most of classroom situations provide example of either memory or understanding or both levels of teaching. Only one level teaching is selected at a time. When one level of teaching completes, and the teacher receives feedback from the students by the process of evaluation only then he proceeds to the next level.
- Autonomous Development Level (Naturally) : It is first student centered development level. There is little or no leadership, direction, pressure, prescription, or imposition of student thought or behavior. ‘Intellectual development is something that just naturally. The obvious implications of this is that there is no need for any kind of formal teaching.
- Memory Level (Thoughtless Teaching) : Teaching at the memory level represents the involvement of the thoughtless level or least thoughtful behavior. In Memory level presentation, trainings and exercise play a very important role in promoting learning. The teacher presents information before the learner. The presentation of Information and facts in a highly systematic manner with a view to develop memory Student memorize the essential content of the subject manner and reproduce them. The memory level teaching and learning is marked by teacher’s arrangement of the material to help or aid the process of quick recalling, recognition and retention. The Interaction between the teacher and the student is at lowest level.
- Understanding Level (Thoughtful Teaching): Understanding levels means to grasp the idea of or to comprehend something. In Understanding level of teaching, teacher stress to make understand the learners the generalizations, principles and facts. Content is presented, analysis and summary is given to the students to help them understand.
In Understanding Level Teacher advocated five Herbartian steps of teaching : preparation, presentation, comparison,generalization and application which can be employed in problematic situations both in and outside the school.
At this level of teaching, the teacher explains the student about the relationship between principles and facts and teach them how these principles can be applied. In the understanding level role of the teacher is more active.
Understanding level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level. At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and by using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem. The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
(d) Reflective (Upper Thoughtful Level)
This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period. It includes both understanding level and memory level of teaching. Reflective level teaching is a kind of problem centered teaching. Two essential features of teaching at reflective level are :
The teacher creates such a problem before the learner which creates so much tension in the learner that they start solving their problems by formulating and testing as result of their motivation and activeness.
Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life. At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem. The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
The ‘cognitive field theory’ provides a support to the reflective level of teaching and learning. The method of teaching in this frame of reference becomes an inquiry into the problems and their solutions. It assumes spontaneous interchange between the teacher and student.
1.6 Basic Requirements of Teaching aptitude
(ii) Learner (Students)
(iii) Subject (Topic)
(vi) Teacher and student relationship
(vii) Student Discipline
Explanations of above points OF TEACHING APTITUDE:-
- The Teacher : The Teacher transfers knowledge and Information to students. He is the creator and the innovator of knowledge and information. Teacher is participating in the decision making that helps to deal with the problems that affect students learning. In the classroom, teacher set environment negatively or positively which is responsible for the social behavior in the classroom.
- The Learner (Students) : As the teacher’s role is now a facilitator (or should be), the student’s role is to take given information or instructions and coordinate that task for himself or group members and begin the task. The teacher formulates a classroom management plan to facilitate the development of an effective learning environment while students also have an obligation in the development of a quality learning environment.
- The Subject (Topic) : The subject is the part of teaching and learning process. The subject should be interested or likely for students so that students can also contribute in the process of learning. Teacher to prepare necessary charts, maps, tables and model that pertain to the decided topic. E-learning methodology and scientific aids also be made available by the teacher to make the teaching more interesting.
- The Environment : The student’s growth and development are the main objective of teaching which is a possible better suitable environment for the teaching-learning process. Creating a positive learning environment in the classroom will allow students to feel comfortable, safe and engaged-something that all students deserve. In a classroom where values and roles remain constant and focus is placed on the positive aspects of learning, students will be more open to actively participate in class.
- Infrastructure : For good teaching and to create good environment, infrastructure is one of the most basic elements necessary to ensure access to education. Infrastructure includes suitable spaces to learn. School classrooms is the most common place in which structured learning takes place with groups of children. While learning also takes place in a variety of different types of spaces-tents, temporary shelters, plastic sheeting, the shade of trees, places of worship, people’s homes, and so on-families and communities expect formal education to take place in classrooms that have been designed for safety and comfort.
- Teacher Student Relationship : Strong teacher student relationships shape the way children think and act in school. When a teacher has a good relationship with students, they likely feel positive about the class and about school in general. They are also more willing to have a go at hard work, to risk making mistakes, and to ask for help when they need it.
- Student’s Discipline : Student’s Discipline supports good teaching environment in the classroom. It supports the learning, well-being and safety of all students for coordination between teacher and students.
Approach of Teaching (Way of Teaching Style)
- Autocratic Approach: In autocratic approach teacher does not share with the students the plan of activities, nor the criteria for assessing individual or group performances. Teacher evolution supposes keeping outside the group’s concrete activities and exercising a strict control.
Autocratic styles of teaching are traditional styles of teaching. These are teacher centered or content centered. Here teacher is more active, and learners are passive listeners. No emphasis is given on learners’ ability, capabilities, interest and personality.
- Democratic Approach: The democratic Teacher does not participate either too much in the activities. Nevertheless, Teacher avoids making decisions alone, and invites the group to participate in setting the organization manner. The students are offered the opportunity to choose every time, their advice is sought regarding the task fulfillment. It is based on Student centered.
- Laissez Fair Approach: A laissez fair teacher is quite opposite to an authorisation teacher. He does not direct or guide students’ activities. In laissez-fair relationship the student are not cooperative.
- Participative Approach: Teaching requires a choice of varied teaching methods adapted to the audience, to learning objectives and to content. These include flipped classrooms, case studies, problem solving, mini-projects, short-term tasks, formal presentations, debates, panel discussions, tutorials, practical work sessions, workshops, role-Play, multimedia sessions, simulations, study visits, blended learning, etc. The more interactive and participatory the method, the greater the audience’s concentration and the easier skills are acquired. This approach offers a teaching system combining theory and practice, primarily based on practice and learning (practical work, tutorials, case studies, problem and project-based learning, short-term missions, simulations, etc.) enabling real-life work or simulated role-play.
- Dynamic Approach: Dynamic Approach is learning characterized by constant change, activity, and progress. This is where learning lives, grows, connects, and extends beyond the boundaries of the class day, beyond the physical location, beyond using tools as digital substitutes, and even beyond due dates; supporting critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity skills.
- Static Approach: Static Approach is the learning that is lacking in movement, action, or change, especially in a way that is not engaging short term assignment, digital substitute, etc. It is adopted traditional bounds of school system.